The Woolworths and Coles Duopoly in Australia: What It Means for You

One of the first things you will notice upon your arrival in Australia is the all-encompassing presence of two major grocery stores across the country. Australia is the land of the supermarket duopoly where the big two giants – Coles and Woolworths – control 65 per cent of the grocery market. Whilst several other players like IGA and Aldi are giving these super stores a run for their money off late, chances are you may be shopping for your daily groceries more at Coles or Woolies (short for Woolworths) than at other outlets because of their network dominance across towns and regions.

With the cost of living increasing every day, there is a heavy focus on inflation, particularly on food price inflation. It is no surprise that in recent months this concentrated supermarket sector has faced criticism and scrutiny, with several investigations underway into their business practices and how it affects customers, farmers and retailers.

In this blog post, we’ll explore how this duopoly affects you as a consumer, what advantages and disadvantages it brings, and some fun facts about these retail powerhouses.

A Brief History of Woolworths and Coles

Woolworths was founded in 1924 in Sydney. Over the decades, it expanded rapidly, becoming one of the largest retail chains in Australia. Woolworths offers a wide range of products, including groceries, clothing, electronics, and household items.

Coles started in 1914 in Melbourne. Initially, it was a variety store but eventually transitioned into the supermarket business. Today, Coles is known for its extensive range of groceries, fresh produce, and household goods.

Both companies have grown through acquisitions and expansions, leading to their current status as the two dominant forces in the Australian supermarket industry.

What is a Duopoly and How it Affects Consumers

A duopoly exists when two companies dominate a market or industry. In Australia, Woolworths and Coles are the primary players in the supermarket sector. They collectively control around 60% to 80% of the grocery market, leaving smaller chains and independent grocers with a smaller piece of the pie. This dominance allows them to influence prices, product availability, and consumer choices significantly. With their considerable market share, these companies can negotiate favourable deals with suppliers, often securing lower prices for bulk purchases. While this can lead to lower prices for some products, it can also stifle competition.

Some Pros and Cons of this existing Duopoly


  1. Lower Prices on Essentials: Woolworths and Coles frequently engage in price wars, leading to discounts on essential items like bread, milk, and fresh produce.
  2. Promotions and Discounts: Both chains offer regular promotions, loyalty programs, and discount vouchers, helping consumers save money.
  3. Wide Product Range: Both stores offer extensive product lines, including organic and gluten-free options, catering to various dietary needs.
  4. Convenience: With numerous locations across Australia, it’s easy to find a Woolworths or Coles store nearby, ensuring convenience for your shopping needs.


  1. Limited Competition: Smaller retailers may struggle to compete, leading to fewer choices and potentially higher prices at independent stores.
  2. Supplier Pressure: The bargaining power of Woolworths and Coles can pressure suppliers to lower their prices, sometimes affecting the quality of products.
  3. Homogenization of Products: The dominance of these two chains can lead to a lack of diversity in the products available, as they may prioritize popular items over niche or specialty goods.
  4. Impact on Local Producers: Smaller, local producers may find it challenging to secure shelf space, limiting consumer access to unique, locally sourced products.

Navigating the Duopoly as a New Resident

​As a newly arrived permanent resident, navigating the Woolworths and Coles duopoly can be overwhelming. Here are some tips to help you make the most of your shopping experience:

  1. Compare Prices: Take advantage of price comparison websites and apps to find the best deals on groceries.
  2. Join Loyalty Programs: Both Woolworths and Coles offer loyalty programs (Everyday Rewards and Flybuys, respectively) that provide discounts, points, and special offers.
  3. Shop Smart: Look out for weekly specials and promotions to save money on your grocery bills.
  4. Support Local: Whenever possible, support local farmers markets and independent grocers to enjoy unique products and contribute to the local economy.
  5. Use Technology: Utilize online shopping and delivery services for added convenience, especially if you have a busy schedule.

Fun Facts About Woolworths and Coles

To wrap up, here are some fun facts about Woolworths and Coles:

  1. Origins: Woolworths was initially called “Wallworths Bazaar Limited” but was changed due to a typo. Coles, on the other hand, started as a variety store selling everything from hardware to clothes.
  2. Customer Loyalty: Woolworths’ loyalty program, Everyday Rewards, has over 12 million members, while Coles’ Flybuys boasts over 8 million active users.
  3. Private Labels: Both supermarkets have extensive private label product lines. Woolworths’ private label is “Essentials,” and Coles’ is “Coles Brand.”

With the cost of living at an all-time high, understanding the Woolworths and Coles duopoly is essential for making informed choices as a consumer in Australia. While this duopoly presents both advantages and challenges, being aware of its impact will help you navigate the grocery landscape with confidence.

Happy shopping, and welcome to your new home!

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